【背景】肠道菌群是人体的重要组成部分，在人体的多种生命活动中发挥着重要作用。【目的】探究维吾尔族和汉族儿童肠道细菌群落特征，为儿童营养健康状况监测和营养改善工作提供更有效精准的营养干预策略。【方法】从新疆维吾尔自治区泽普县维吾尔族和河南省民权县汉族人群中分别随机选取10?12岁学龄期儿童各20名，同一时间段收集其新鲜粪便，提取细菌总DNA，通过高通量测序和生物信息学分析，研究两地区健康维吾尔族儿童与汉族儿童肠道细菌群落的差异。【结果】获得测序序列2 007 100条，归类于994个OTU；所有样本共含15个细菌门139属。α多样性和β多样性分析表明，调查地区的2个民族儿童肠道细菌的丰富度和多样性均有统计学意义上的差异，维吾尔族儿童肠道细菌群落丰富度高于汉族儿童，而物种多样性不如汉族儿童。其中，维吾尔族儿童肠道细菌丰度相对占优势的门和属及其丰度值为：拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes，63%)、厚壁菌门(Firmicutes，22%)、普氏菌属(Prevotella，61%)、琥珀酸弧菌属(Succinivibrio，9%)和粪杆菌属(Faecalibacterium，5%)；汉族儿童肠道细菌丰度占优势的门和属及其丰度值为：厚壁菌门(57%)、拟杆菌门(23%)、粪杆菌属(16%)、普氏菌属(11%)和拟杆菌属(Bacteroides，11%)。【结论】调查地区维吾尔族与汉族儿童肠道细菌群落差异较大，这为进一步研究肠道菌群与膳食因素及人体营养健康状况之间的关系提供了依据。
[Background] Gut microbiota is an important part of human body and plays an important role in various life activities. [Objective] To explore the characteristics of gut bacteria community in Uyghur and Han children in order to provide more effective and accurate nutrition intervention strategies for children's nutritional health monitoring and nutrition improvement. [Methods] 20 children of 10?12 years of school age Uyghur and Han nationality were selected from Zepu county and Minquan county, respectively. Collect their fresh feces at the same time period, extracted the total bacterial DNA, through high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to study the gut bacteria community differences between healthy Uyghur children and Han children. [Results] 2 007 100 sequences were obtained and classified into 994 OTUs. All the samples contained a total of 15 phyla and 139 genera. Alpha and Beta analyses indicated that there were statistically significant differences in the richness and diversity of gut bacteria in children of the two ethnic groups in the surveyed regions. The richness of gut bacteria community in Uyghur children was higher than that in Han children, while the species diversity was lower than that in Han children. The dominant phyla and genera of Uyghur children's gut bacteria are Bacteroidetes (63%), Firmicutes (22%), Prevotella (61%), Succinivibrio (9%) and Faecalibacterium (5%). While in Han children, the dominant phyla and genera are Firmicutes (57%), Bacteroidetes (23%), Faecalibacterium (16%), Prevotella (11%) and Bacteroides (11%). [Conclusion] The significant differences of gut bacteria community between Uyghur and Han children in the surveyed regions provide a scientific basis for further research on the relationship between gut microbiota, dietary factors and human nutritional health.