Human microbiome is comprised of symbiotic microorganisms in the human body, whose dynamic balance is closely related to human health, and is recognized as important “organs” that can regulate immunity, metabolism and other aspects in human body, and is associated with functions of many organs including lung, intestine, vagina and brain, becoming a potential target for the treatment of cancer, coronary heart disease, neurological diseases and other difficult diseases. In recent years, with the rapid development of microbiome sequencing and analysis technology, it has become an international focus and forefront to discover the relationship between human microorganisms and many diseases, as well as target for new treatment methods. Thus, we organized this special issue and publish reviews on study methodology, human disease and microbiome as well as therapeutic strategies, and provide important information to advance microbiome research in China.
王洁婧，王军，邓子新.微生物与生命健康专题序言[J].Chinese Journal of Biotechnology,2021,37(11):3711-3716 Export BibTexEndNote
The research on the relationship between gut microbiota and human health continues to be a hot topic in the field of life science. Culture independent 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing is the current main research method. However, with the reduction of sequencing cost and the maturity of data analysis methods, shotgun metagenome sequencing is gradually becoming an important method for the study of gut microbiome due to its advantages of obtaining more information. With the support from the human microbiome project, 30 805 metagenome samples were sequenced in the United States. By searching NCBI PubMed and SRA databases, it was found that 72 studies collecting about 10 000 Chinese intestinal samples were used for metagenome sequencing. To date, only 56 studies were published, including 16 related to metabolic diseases, 16 related to infectious and immune diseases, and 12 related to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The samples were mainly collected in Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai and other cosmopolitan cities, where great differences exist in sequencing platforms and methods. The outcome of most studies are based on correlation analysis, which has little practical value in guiding the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases. Standardizing sampling methods, sequencing platform and data analysis process, and carrying out multi center parallel research will contribute to data integration and comparative analysis. Moreover, insights into the functional verification and molecular mechanism by using the combination of transcriptomics, proteomics and culturomics will enable the gut microbiota research to better serve the clinical diagnosis and treatment.
尹业师，喻嵘，陈华海.中国人群肠道微生物鸟枪法宏基因组测序研究进展[J].Chinese Journal of Biotechnology,2021,37(11):3717-3733 Export BibTexEndNote
High cholesterol is one of the important factors inducing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Drug therapy is the main method for reducing cholesterol, but has the disadvantages such as high cost and side effects. Studies have shown that intestinal bacteria play important roles in cholesterol metabolism. However, there are few reports on the screening and functional evaluation of cholesterol-lowering intestinal bacteria. In this study, 36 bile-tolerant bacteria were screened from healthy people stool through culturomics using bovine bile acid or artificial mixed bile acids as substrates. Taking Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as a positive control, three bile acid concentration groups (0 g/L, 0.3 g/L, 3 g/L) were set up to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering ability of bile-tolerant bacteria in vitro. Ten bacteria (including Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Proteus vulgaris et al) were identified as the dominant cholesterol-lowering bacteria. Six of the above bacteria, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica, Providencia rettger, were evaluated for their ability to reduce triglycerides in vitro and tolerance to artificial gastric juice. Comparing with strain LGG, the six bacteria showed better triglyceride-lowering ability in vitro. With the decrease of pH value of artificial gastric juice and the increase of treatment time, the survival rate of six bacteria decreased. The above screening experiments and functional evaluation provide a basis for further development of potential cholesterol-lowering bacterial products.
和生辉，潘志远，韩妮，葛燕，常宇骁，魏文婷，刘月娇，张倩文，杨瑞馥，毕玉晶.利用培养组学技术分离鉴定体外降解胆固醇肠道细菌及其功能评价[J].Chinese Journal of Biotechnology,2021,37(11):3734-3744 Export BibTexEndNote
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a chronic disease but causes the highest mortality and morbidity among the cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Correlations between CAD and gut microbiota have been observed. This suggests that the gut microbiota could become a vital diagnostic marker of CAD, and restoring the gut habitat may become a promising strategy for CAD therapy. The elevated level of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-derived metabolite, was found to be associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the all-cause mortality. Preclinical studies have shown that it has pro-arteriosclerosis properties. It is likely that regulating the production of TMAO by gut microbiota may become a promising strategy for anti-atherosclerosis therapy. This review summarizes the clinical and preclinical researches on the intervention of CAD by regulating the gut microbiota and the microbiota-derived metabolite TMAO, with the aim to provide new target for the therapy of CAD.
李亚梦，崔美泽，孙婧，魏秋阳，刘明宇，张建伟，亓红香，赵丽丽，房辉，陈在浩，吕韶钧.肠道菌群及其代谢产物氧化三甲胺——冠心病治疗的新靶点[J].Chinese Journal of Biotechnology,2021,37(11):3745-3756 Export BibTexEndNote