快中子辐照结合组织培养培育花生新品种宇花7号
Breeding peanut variety Yuhua 7 by fast neutron irradiation and tissue culture
投稿时间:2018-05-16  
DOI:  10.13345/j.cjb.180207
中文关键词:花生品种,辐照诱变,离体培养,低油,早熟
英文关键词:peanut variety, irradiation mutagenesis, in vitro culture, low oil content, early maturity
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (Nos. 31471524,31571705) 资助。
作者单位E-mail
王霞 1 青岛农业大学 生命科学学院山东 青岛 266109  
刘录祥 2 中国农业科学院 作物科学研究所 国家农作物基因资源与基因改良重大科学工程 国家农作物航天诱变技术改良中心北京 100081  
乔利仙 3 青岛农业大学 农学院 山东省旱作农业重点实验室山东 青岛 266109  
隋炯明 3 青岛农业大学 农学院 山东省旱作农业重点实验室山东 青岛 266109  
姜德锋 3 青岛农业大学 农学院 山东省旱作农业重点实验室山东 青岛 266109  
李冠 3 青岛农业大学 农学院 山东省旱作农业重点实验室山东 青岛 266109  
赵琳姝 2 中国农业科学院 作物科学研究所 国家农作物基因资源与基因改良重大科学工程 国家农作物航天诱变技术改良中心北京 100081  
王晶珊 3 青岛农业大学 农学院 山东省旱作农业重点实验室山东 青岛 266109 jswang319@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      为开拓新的花生育种方法,对辐照诱变结合组织培养创造花生新种质、培育新品种进行了研究。以我国北方地区主栽花生品种鲁花11号成熟种子为试材,经快中子辐照处理后取种子胚小叶进行组织培养,通过胚胎发生途径获得再生苗。再生苗经嫁接驯化后移栽田间,83个单株获得种子。后代按系谱法进行选育,从83个再生植株后代中获得了107份突变体,分别在主茎高、分枝数、荚果形状和大小、种皮颜色、内种皮颜色、含油率、蛋白含量等性状上发生了明显变异。从突变体后代中选育出了低油早熟耐涝大花生新品种宇花7号,其产量比亲本鲁花11号增产14%以上;其含油率 (47.0%) 比鲁花11号低5.1个百分点。宇花7号2016年参加辽宁省新品种登记试验,比对照品种白沙1017平均增产13.8%。2018年通过了国家非主要农作物品种登记,登记号为“GPD花生 (2018) 370105”。研究结果说明,辐照结合组织培养是创造花生新种质、培育新品种的有效方法。
英文摘要:
      Creating new germplasms and breeding new cultivars in peanut by radiation mutagenesis and tissue culture were conducted in this study, aiming to develop new breeding method of peanut. Mature seeds from Luhua 11, the most commonly grown peanut cultivar in Northern China, were treated by fast neutron irradiation. Then the embryo leaflets were separated from the irradiated seeds and inoculated on the media, and the regenerated seedlings were obtained through somatic embryogenesis pathway. The regenerated seedlings were grafted, acclimated and then transplanted into field and the selfed pods were harvested from 83 regenerated plants. The progenies were selected by the pedigree method, and 107 mutants were obtained from the progenies of the 83 regenerated plants. Different mutants showed obvious variation in many agronomic traits, including main stem height, branch number, pod shape and size, seed coat color, inner seed coat color, oil content and protein content etc. Yuhua 7, a new peanut variety with low oil content, early maturity and waterlogging tolerance was obtained. The yield of Yuhua 7 was over 14% higher than that of the mutagenic parent Luhua 11, and the oil content of kernels was 47.0%, lower than that of parent Luhua 11 with 52.1% oil content. Yuhua 7 had passed peanut variety regional multi-location trials in Liaoning Province in 2016 and its average yield was 13.8% higher than that of the control variety Baisha 1017. It had also passed national peanut variety registration, and the registration ID is “GPD peanut (2018) 370105”. The results show that irradiation mutagenesis combined with tissue culture is an effective method for creating new germplasm and breeding new varieties of peanut.
王霞,刘录祥,乔利仙,隋炯明,姜德锋,李冠,赵琳姝,王晶珊.快中子辐照结合组织培养培育花生新品种宇花7号[J].生物工程学报,2019,35(2):270~280
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