抗菌药在医疗和畜牧生产中的滥用导致了细菌抗药性的产生，这个公共卫生问题引起了人们越来越多的关注。除了基因突变和获得形成的抗药性 (Resistance) 外，细菌在自然环境中遇到的各种压力会引发其产生应激反应，这不仅可以保护细菌免受这些压力的影响，还会改变细菌对抗菌药的耐药性 (Tolerance)。耐药性的产生必然会影响细菌的生理代谢，但是细菌可以通过调节自身代谢恢复对药物的敏感性。文中综述了近年来细菌应激反应和生理代谢与细菌耐药性之间的相关研究，以期采取更加有效的措施来控制细菌抗药性的发生和蔓延。
Overuse of antibiotics in medical care and animal husbandry has led to the development of bacterial antimicrobial resistance, causing increasingly more health concern. In addition to genetic mutations and the formation of resistance, the various stresses bacteria encountered in the natural environment trigger their stress responses, which not only protect them from these stresses, but also change their tolerance to antimicrobials. The emergence of antimicrobial tolerance will inevitably affect the physiological metabolism of bacteria. However, bacteria can restore their sensitivity to drugs by regulating their own metabolism. This article reviews recent studies on the relationship between bacterial stress responses or the physiological metabolism and antimicrobial tolerance, intending to take more effective measures to control the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
国家重点研发计划 (No. 2018YFD0500300)，国家自然科学基金 (No. 31502115) 资助。