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  • Yuxia Liu, Shijuan Dou, Xiuling Wang
    Acta Microbiologica Sinica. 2021,61(11):3351-3362
    DOI: 10.13343/j.cnki.wsxb.20210016
    Proline with strong hydrophilic property is the only sub-amino acid being used for protein synthesis. The function and mechanism for proline has been extensively studied in plant. Proline is not only an osmolyte, but it also has important roles in scavenging reactive oxygen species, acting as a signal molecule to regulate growth, development, proliferation and cell death in plant. Recent studies have demonstrated that a proper amount of proline plays important roles in bacterial cells. The biosynthesis, degradation, intracellular and extracellular transport as well as the function of proline produced by bacteria were reviewed in this paper.
    Citation
    刘玉霞,窦世娟,王秀伶.细菌中脯氨酸的生物合成、降解及功能.Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2021,61(11):3351-3362
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  • Wei Liu, Chunmei Du
    Acta Microbiologica Sinica. 2021,61(11):3363-3376
    DOI: 10.13343/j.cnki.wsxb.20210042
    As a ubiquitous phenomenon in eukaryotes, autophagy not only achieves the degradation and recycling of intracellular substances, but also interacts with a series of processes such as the appressorium development, turgor increase, mycelium formation, and completion of infection, etc, in the early infection stage of plant pathogenic fungi, and plays an important role in these bio-processes. In the present review the autophagy related genes and the autophagy process of phytopathogenic fungi are smmarized; the regulation and influence of autophagy on the growth and development and the pathogenicity of pathogenic fungi are generalized; the autophagy related signaling pathways of pathogenic fungi are illustrated; and the main molecular mechanisms of autophagy influencing the infection processes of phytopathogenic fungi are clarified. These provide new strategies and ideas for screening new drugs that inhibit pathogenic fungi infection by using autophagy-related genes or proteins as targets in future studies.
    Citation
    刘伟,杜春梅.植物病原真菌的自噬.Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2021,61(11):3363-3376
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  • Wanyang Liu, Guomei Quan, Jiaqi Liu, Siqi Lian, Guoqiang Zhu
    Acta Microbiologica Sinica. 2021,61(11):3377-3390
    DOI: 10.13343/j.cnki.wsxb.20210058
    Bacterial secretion systems can deliver specific effector molecular to outer environment or directly into target cells, resulting in the adaptive advantage from interaction between bacteria and host or bacteria in microbial communities. The type Ⅵ secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular secretory apparatus which is functionally and structurally analogous to the needle-like contractile tail of bacteriophages, wide-spreading in Gram-negative bacteria. It can translocate diverse enzyme and toxins of bacteria into eukaryotic or prokaryotic target cells in a contact-dependent manner. After delivery, the effector proteins can make an impact on both interbacterial competition and pathogenicity. In addition, some effectors can also enter the extracellular milieu in a non-contact dependent manner to help bacteria obtain scarce metal ions, which is essential for the maintenance of intracellular metal homeostasis under stress conditions. In this review, we summarize the advances in understanding the relevant aspects from the structure and assembly to the function of T6SS. We also focus on the broad area of T6SS effector and its mechanism of metal ion translocation, which contributes to our comprehension of the crucial role of T6SS in the microbial competition and host infection.
    Citation
    刘琬洋,权国梅,刘家奇,连思琪,朱国强.革兰氏阴性菌Ⅵ型分泌系统及其参与金属离子转运的研究进展.Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2021,61(11):3377-3390
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  • He Wang, Daizong Cui, Dian Yang, Min Zhao
    Acta Microbiologica Sinica. 2021,61(11):3391-3400
    DOI: 10.13343/j.cnki.wsxb.20210059
    As an important semiconductor, cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) have outstanding photoelectric properties, adjustable band gap and chemical stability, and have a great application potential in related fields, such as:analytical chemistry, biomedicine, fluorescence imaging and biosensor. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs has been widely studied due to its controllable, low-cost and environmental friendly advantages. However, as a kind of nano-scaled metal sulfide materials, CdS NPs have severe toxic effects on prokaryotic microorganisms. This review summarized the research progress of the toxic mechanism of CdS NPs in prokaryotic cells, including the biosynthetic process of CdS NPs; the toxic effects of CdS NPs on E. coli cells and the defense mechanisms of the cells. Moreover, we discussed the toxic effects of different forms of cadmium on the biosynthetic cells during the CdS NPs biosynthetic process and the unique mechanisms of the NPs biosynthesis strains to respond to the cadmium stress. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the toxicity of CdS NPs on the bacteria cells in a more comprehensive way and to promote the application of the CdS-resistant prokaryotes in related fields.
    Citation
    王赫,崔岱宗,杨典,赵敏.硫化镉纳米粒子对原核生物的毒理作用.Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2021,61(11):3391-3400
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