[目的] 本研究揭示云南腾冲热海热泉真菌多样性及群落分布格局，探讨其理化因子对真菌群落结构的影响。[方法] 利用Illumina HiSeq2500高通量测序平台对腾冲热海热泉沉积物宏基因组ITS基因进行测序，并进行生物信息分析。[结果] 从5个热泉样品中共检测到343484条有效序列，包括5个真菌门，20个纲，66个目。右姐妹泉（JMQR）、左姐妹泉（JMQL）、蛤蟆嘴泉（M）、桥泉（QQ）及鼓明泉（GMQP）分别以Agaricales、Eurotiales、Capnodiales和Hypocreales等为优势目。在属水平上，共获得365个属，从JMQR中检测到212个属，以裂褶菌属（Schizophyllum）为最优势；从JMQL中挖掘到197个属，以青霉属（Penicillium）为最优势类群；从M和QQ中分别获得222个和270个属，均以枝孢属（Cladosporium）为最优势；从GMQP中发现179个属，以侧齿霉属（Engyodontium）丰度最高。NH4+含量、温度及pH影响不同优势真菌的分布，其中以pH与优势类群（OTU>1%）结构变化显著性最高（P=0.05）。[结论] 云南腾冲热海高温热泉蕴藏着极其丰富的真菌物种，其不同样品真菌分布具有差异性，pH可能是影响热泉真菌群落分布的重要因素之一。
[Objective] Fungal diversity and community structures were revealed in Rehai hot springs in Tengchong, Yunnan, and effects of sediment geochemical properties on fungal distribution were analyzed.[Methods] Fungal ITS genes were detected in the sediment metagenomes by high-throughput pyrosequencing and bioinformatic analysis.[Results] Total 343484 valid reads from 5 hot springs were obtained, and these reads included 5 phyla, 20 classes, and 66 orders. The hot springs Jiemeiquan right (JMQR), Jiemeiquan left (JMQL), Hamazui (M), Qiaoquan (QQ) and Gumingquan (GMQP) were dominated by communities such as Agaricales, Eurotiales, Capnodiales, and Hypocreales. A total of 365 genera were discovered in the hot springs studied. There were total 212 genera detected in JMQR, 197 in JMQL, 222 in M, 270 in QQ, and 179 in GMQP. Schizophyllum was a dominant genus of fungal community in JMQR, and Penicillium was highly frequent in JMQL. Cladosporium dominanted fungal community in M and QQ, and Engyodontium was highly rich in GMQP. The geochemical variables such as NH4+, temperature, and pH, exerted effects on distribution of different dominant fungi in the hot springs. The pH in the hot springs had significant effect on fungal community composition.[Conclusion] Rehai hot springs in Tengchong, Yunnan, harbor surprisingly fungal diversity. Fungi in different samples had distinct community structures. The pH in the hot springs could be one of the factors determining the fungal community.